UNIX 常用命令大全

这里列出的命令,包括语法和简要说明。如需详细资料,请使用:

$man command

文件和目录:

这些命令允许你创建的目录和处理文件。

命令 描述
cat Display File Contents
cd Changes Directory to dirname
chgrp change file group
chmod Changing Permissions
cp Copy source file into destination
file Determine file type
find Find files
grep Search files for regular expressions.
head Display first few lines of a file
ln Create softlink on oldname
ls Display information about file type.
mkdir Create a new directory dirname
more Display data in paginated form.
mv Move (Rename) a oldname to newname.
pwd Print current working directory.
rm Remove (Delete) filename
rmdir Delete an existing directory provided it is empty.
tail Prints last few lines in a file.
touch Update access and modification time of a file.

操作数据:

可以比较改变文件的内容,并用下面的命令。

命令 描述
awk Pattern scanning and processing language
cmp Compare the contents of two files
comm Compare sorted data
cut Cut out selected fields of each line of a file
diff Differential file comparator
expand Expand tabs to spaces
join Join files on some common field
perl Data manipulation language
sed Stream text editor
sort Sort file data
split Split file into smaller files
tr Translate characters
uniq Report repeated lines in a file
wc Count words, lines, and characters
vi Opens vi text editor
vim Opens vim text editor
fmt Simple text formatter
spell Check text for spelling error
ispell Check text for spelling error
ispell Check text for spelling error
emacs GNU project Emacs
ex, edit Line editor
emacs GNU project Emacs
emacs GNU project Emacs

压缩文件:

文件可能被压缩以节省空间。压缩文件,可以创建和检查:

命令 描述
compress Compress files
gunzip Uncompress gzipped files
gzip GNU alternative compression method
uncompress Uncompress files
unzip List, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
zcat Cat a compressed file
zcmp Compare compressed files
zdiff Compare compressed files
zmore File perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text

获取信息:

各种UNIX手册和文档上线。下面的 Shell 命令给出的信息:

命令 描述
apropos Locate commands by keyword lookup
info Displays command information pages online
man Displays manual pages online
whatis Search the whatis database for complete words.
yelp GNOME help viewer

网络通信:

这些命令是用来发送和接收文件从全球各地远程主机到本地UNIX主机。

命令 描述
ftp File transfer program
rcp Remote file copy
rlogin Remote login to a UNIX host
rsh Remote shell
tftp Trivial file transfer program
telnet Make terminal connection to another host
ssh Secure shell terminal or command connection
scp Secure shell remote file copy
sftp secure shell file transfer program

出于安全原因,有些命令在您的计算机可能会受到限制。

用户之间的消息:

UNIX 系统支持的屏幕上的消息给其他用户和世界各地的电子邮箱:

命令 描述
evolution GUI mail handling tool on Linux
mail Simple send or read mail program
mesg Permit or deny messages
parcel Send files to another user
pine Vdu-based mail utility
talk Talk to another user
write Write message to another user

编程工具:

下面的编程语言和工具都是基于你已经安装到你的Unix。

命令 描述
dbx Sun debugger
gdb GNU debugger
make Maintain program groups and compile programs.
nm Print program’s name list
size Print program’s sizes
strip Remove symbol table and relocation bits
cb C program beautifier
cc ANSI C compiler for Suns SPARC systems
ctrace C program debugger
gcc GNU ANSI C Compiler
indent Indent and format C program source
bc Interactive arithmetic language processor
gcl GNU Common Lisp
perl General purpose language
php Web page embedded language
py Python language interpreter
asp Web page embedded language
CC C++ compiler for Suns SPARC systems
g++ GNU C++ Compiler
javac JAVA compiler
appletvieweir JAVA applet viewer
netbeans Java integrated development environment on Linux
sqlplus Run the Oracle SQL interpreter
sqlldr Run the Oracle SQL data loader
mysql Run the mysql SQL interpreter

其他命令:

这些命令列出或改变有关系统的信息:

命令 描述
chfn Change your finger information
chgrp Change the group ownership of a file
chown Change owner
date Print the date
determin Automatically find terminal type
du Print amount of disk usage
echo Echo arguments to the standard options
exit Quit the system
finger Print information about logged-in users
groupadd Create a user group
groups Show group memberships
homequota Show quota and file usage
iostat Report I/O statistics
kill Send a signal to a process
last Show last logins of users
logout log off UNIX
lun List user names or login ID
netstat Show network status
passwd Change user password
passwd Change your login password
printenv Display value of a shell variable
ps Display the status of current processes
ps Print process status statistics
quota -v Display disk usage and limits
reset Reset terminal mode
script Keep script of terminal session
script Save the output of a command or process
setenv Set environment variables
stty Set terminal options
time Time a command
top Display all system processes
tset Set terminal mode
tty Print current terminal name
umask Show the permissions that are given to view files by default
uname Display name of the current system
uptime Get the system up time
useradd Create a user account
users Print names of logged in users
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
w Show what logged in users are doing
who List logged in users
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